Teaching and Learning Process

Winkel (1989: 36) defines learning as a psychology activity that holds in active interaction with the environment, which produces many changes of knowledge, skills, and attitude. While, according to Slameto (1995: 2), psychologically, learning is a changing process as a result of the interaction with the environment to fulfil the needs in life. The changing is not only in increasing knowledge, but also skill, attitudes, the way of thinking, interest, adaptation, and the others. Learning is an activity done by everyone that can be hold anywhere and anytime.
From those definitions, apparently, learning is an activity done by human being as an effort to get knowledge (cognitive), to create attitudes (affective), and to raise concept and skills (psychomotor) as a result of the interaction with the environment. In learning process, the dominant activity is the interaction between teacher and the students (Sardiman, 1986:170).
According to Sudjana (in Djamarah, 1995: 45), the same as learning, teaching is a process. There are processes of controlling, organizing, motivating, guiding, facilitating, and giving feedback to the students in process teaching and learning. Teaching process is not only putting premium on product, but also on learning process. So, teacher needs evaluation’s instrument that can be used to assess all of students’ learning process step by step.

2.2 Traditional Assessment
Traditionally, assessment is held at the end of teaching-learning process. Its purpose is to know whether the students have understood the subject that is learned or not. Certain grade is used to decide the understanding degree of the students to the subject. If the students get a good grade at the test, it means that they passed. On the contrary, they didn’t pass if they get bad grade. This notion is the traditional notion of assessment (Budimansyah, 2002).
According to Solomon (2004), the traditional purpose of assessment is to summarize student knowledge and progress at the conclusion of a unit of study. Traditional assessment includes multiple-choice questions and asking students to respond the questions with short answers.
From those notions of assessment, it is clear that traditional purpose of teaching and learning process is in order the students can respond the questions with correct answers. The product of learning is more emphasized then the process it self. Teacher gives quizzes and tests to assess cognitive aspect only. This kind of assessment is just recall students’ memorization. This is seldom requiring students to apply what they know and can do in real-life situations. It encourages instruction of less important skills and passive learning.

2.3 Strength of Traditional Assessment
Although alternative forms of assessment are currently popular, traditional assessment should not necessary be eliminated by other type of assessment because it do have strength over other forms of assessment. According to Watson and Taylor (1994), traditional tests are less time consuming than most other forms of assessment, even when they include higher level thinking items. It is also relatively easy to validate and determine internal consistency for traditional multiple choice test. Brown and Shavelson (in Watson and Taylor, 1994) say that traditional tests are valid for testing students’ factual knowledge.

2.4 Weakness of Traditional Assessment
The weakness of traditional assessment are described by Applebee (in Luitel, 2002) that the traditional notion of assessment cannot assess the student learning process realistically because it views the assessment as the notion of knowledge-out-of-action. It tends to prompt the students to overcome with basic skills only. Although basic skills may be important goals of education, they are often over-emphasized in an effort to raise test scores. Basic skills and minimum competencies become the overarching goal of schools and teachers as accountability and minimum competency exams concentrate on these areas (Bond, 1995).
In traditional assessment process, teachers give less attention and rarely to assess the student’s work in every meeting. It brings the students become lack of attention toward their error in finishing their work. According to Kasiram (1984:10), learning will be on the decline if the students do not know the result of their work. The students want to know feedback of their effort in doing the work as a motivation in learning process. Dimyati and Mudjiono (2002:48) stated that students would be more motivated in learning if the students know the result of their work as a feedback.

2.5 Portfolio Assessment
There are many theorists who give definition about portfolio. According to Yasin (2001), in the beginning, portfolio is only collection of task, learning experience, exhibition, and assessment of own work result in art areas. From the collection, teacher assesses painting skill of the students. So that assessment result is not only from final test. Final test sometime is not shows the student’s ability because the students’ work at the final test can be influenced by the situation and condition at the time, for example the students is in pain or less concentration, so they can’t make good work.
Paulson et all in Kemp and Toperoff (1998) give definition about portfolio:
Portfolio is a purposeful collection of student work that exhibits the student’s efforts, progress, and achievements in one or more areas. The collection must include student participation in selecting contents, the criteria for selection, the criteria for judging merit, and evidence of student self-reflection.



In this way a portfolio is a living, growing collection of a student’s work. Each addition is carefully selected by the student for a specific reason which he will explain. The overall purpose of the portfolio is to enable the student to demonstrate to others learning and progress. The greatest value of portfolio is that, in building them, students become active participants in the learning process and its assessment.
Arter & Spandel in Luitel (2002) state the notion of portfolio. The literary meaning of the term ‘portfolio’ is a collection of the past work. However, in the context of assessment, portfolio does not represent only a mere collection of the past work. The Northwest Evaluation Association urges that the portfolio is a purposeful collection of student work that tells the story of the student’s effort, progress, or achievement in given areas. According to Simon and Forgette-Giroux in Luitel (2002), the portfolio is a cumulative and ongoing collection of entries that are selected following a given framework, and reflected upon by the student, to assess his/her development of a specific but complex competency. Similarly, portfolio is also known as a record of the child’s process of learning that portrays
the learner’s style of thinking, questioning, analysis, production, creation, and the like (Grace, in Luitel, 2002). Commonly speaking, the portfolio can be viewed as a systematic and organized collection of evidence used by the teacher and student to monitor the growth of student’s knowledge, skills, and attitudes in a specific content area.
According to Genesee and Upshur (in Brown, 2004:256), a portfolio is a purposeful collection of students’ work that demonstrates their efforts, progress, and achievements in given areas. Portfolios include materials such as: essays and compositions in draft and final forms; reports, project outlines; poetry and creative prose; artwork, photos, newspaper or magazine clippings; audio and/or video recording of representations or demonstrations; journals, diaries, and other personal reflections; test, test scores, and written homework exercises; notes on lectures; and self and peer-assessments (comments, evaluation, and checklists).
It can be summarized that portfolio is the collection of student work and documentation about the students learning progress (i.e., the students’ task, test, performance, and activity) regularly and continuously. Portfolio can be in form of the students’ work, the students’ answer to the teacher’s questions, anecdotal record of the students, report of the students’ activity, and the students’ composition or journal.

2.5.1 Basic Principle of Assessment in Portfolio Assessment Model
Portfolio assessment model relates to a number of assessment basic principles (Budimansyah, 2002). The assessment basic principles are:
(1) Principle of process and product assessment
Portfolio assessment model applies process and product of teaching and learning. The assessment of learning processes are got from anecdotal record about the students’ attitudes in learning, their enthusiastic, and many others. Another aspect of process assessment is assessing structured task from teacher whether the task is done well and seriously or not. Beside that, process assessment can be done by viewing the report of the students’ activity outside of school whether they have activity that supporting their learning process or not.
(2) Principle of periodic and continual assessment
Assessment should be done periodic and continue. Periodic assessment is conducted to facilitate the organization of learning results. While the goal of continual assessment is to view the growth and development of the students’ learning experienced.
The examples of periodic assessment are having formative test and summative test, having structured task at the end of a chapter, having anecdotal record in every meeting, and having the report of student’s activity out of school once in a month. It is doing continually from the first meeting until the end.
(3) Principle of fair assessment
In giving assessment should pay attention to individual differences. All of indicators in portfolio assessment are taken into consideration and each of them is giving score, so the result is describing the process. In other words, the student who has good learning experienced, he/she will have big opportunity to have success.
(4) Principle of social implication assessment
By learning the students should come up with such asocial implication, that means meaningful for the others. Learning is not only get a good grade or pass the examination, but it should have implication toward the students’ attitudes and skills. Portfolio assessment is not limited in assess cognitive aspect, but also affective and psychomotor, involves social implication. This learning experience is functionally needed in real life in the future. To enter real life system is needed provisions, not only a mark or a piece of licensed.

2.6 Strength of Portfolio Assessment
Portfolio assessment can be used for many necessities. It records the students’ learning process. Berenson and Certer in Rusoni (2001) stated that there are some portfolio assessment’s strengths:
(1) To make document of the student’s progress for certain period of times;
Result of the students work are recorded in a list and documented in a bundle. It will be evidence of the students’ learning process in certain period of times.
(2) To know part of teaching learning process that needs to be repaired;
By using portfolio, teacher can analyze which material that should be explained again, which instruments that should be repaired, and et cetera.
(3) To inspire self confident and motivation in learning;
Students would be more motivated in learning if the students know the result of their work as a feedback.
(4) To give rise to responsible to learn.
It came to the students that process of learning is more important than a mere of good score.
While according to Gronlund in Rusoni (2001), the strengths of portfolio assessment are:
(1) Can know clearly the student’s learning progress;
Result of the students work are recorded in a list and documented in a bundle. It will be evidence of the students’ learning process in certain period of times. Teacher, students, and parents can know clearly the student’s learning progress.
(2) Give positive influence in learning by stressing to the best student work;
Teacher assesses the students systematically and continually. Teacher gives attention to the students’ work and turns the students to correct errors in their previous work. The best work will be chose as an example for another student.
(3) Make comparisons between the present work with the last work that will give more motivation rather than make comparisons with peers’ work;
Students will be more motivated when they compare their own present work with the past work. Students can find that their effort in learning is really useful, and they can see it from their portfolio.
(4) Can develop the skill to give own assessment;
Sometimes teacher asks the students to make self-assessment. Teacher turns the students to see their ability in learning.
(5) Give opportunity to the students to work according to individual differences (i.e., the students write according to their level but still in the same goal);
Each student has their own ability. By using portfolio teacher gives opportunity to the students to work according to individual differences. Students can make creative work, like short story, poetry, comic, and et cetera, and collect it into portfolio or put it on “Majalah Dinding”.
(6) Become communication tool about the students’ learning progress for the students it self, parents, and the others.
Teacher can shows student’s portfolio to parents or another parties as an evidence of the student’s learning progress.
J kemp and D. Toperoff (1998) also give some ideas about it. They give some reasons why use portfolio assessment:
(1) Matches assessment to teaching
The products that are assessed are mainly products of class-work, and are not divorced from class activities like test items.
(2) Has clear goals
They are decided on at the beginning of instruction and are clear to teacher and students alike.
(3) Gives profile of learner abilities
Depth: It enables students to show quality work, which is done without pressure and time constraints and with the help of resources, reference materials, and collaboration with others.
Breadth: A wide range of skills can be demonstrated.
Growth: It shows efforts to improve and develop, and demonstrates progress over time.
(4) Is a tool for assessing a variety of skills
Written as well as oral and graphic products can easily be included.
(5) Develops awareness of own learning
Students have to reflect on their own progress and the quality of their work in relation to known goals.
(6) Caters to individuals in the heterogeneous class
Since it open-ended, students can show work on their own level. Since there is choice, it caters to different learning styles and allows expression of different strengths.
(7) Develops social skills
Students are also assessed on work done together, in pairs or groups, on project and assignments.
(8) Develops independent and active learners
Students must select and justify portfolio choices; monitor progress and set learning goals.
(9) Can improve motivation for learning and thus achievement
Empowerment of students to prove achievement has been found to be motivating.
(10) Is an efficient tool for demonstrating learning
Different kinds of products and records of progress fit conveniently into one package.
(11) Provides opportunity for student-teacher dialogue
Teacher can find the student’s problem in learning by the portfolio. To solve the problem teacher can dialogue with the student.

Brown (2004:257) gives a number of potential benefits of portfolio:
(1) Foster intrinsic motivation, responsibility, and ownership;
Using assessment portfolios that include English language learners not only provides improved information about student achievement but also makes a positive impact on teaching and student learning. The use of portfolio encourages students to take more motivation and responsibility for their own learning.

(2) Promote student-teacher interaction with the teacher as facilitator;
Portfolio is one of facilitation in learning. Feedback from teacher that presents on portfolio will be a motivation for students to give new responses.
(3) Celebrate the uniqueness of each students;
Each student has their own ability. By using portfolio teacher gives opportunity to the students to work according to individual differences. Students can make creative work, like short story, poetry, comic, and et cetera, and collect it into portfolio.
(4) Provide tangible evidence of a student’s work;
Result of the students work are recorded in a list and documented in a bundle. It will be evidence of the students’ learning process in certain period of times. Teacher, students, and parents can know clearly the student’s learning progress.
(5) Facilitate critical thinking, self-assessment, and revision processes;
Sometimes teacher asks the students to make self-assessment. Teacher turns the students to see their ability in learning. Teacher also turns the students to be careful in doing the work. Teacher asks the students to correct the errors in their work and then make the revision.
(6) Offer opportunities for collaborative work with peers; and
Students are also assessed on work done together, in pairs or groups, on project and assignments.
(7) Permit assessment of multiple dimensions of language learning.
Written as well as oral and graphic products can easily be included.
2.7 Weakness of Portfolio Assessment
Although there are some Strength of portfolio assessment have been extolled in a number of sources, but it also has weakness, they are:
(1) Students need more time in doing the work;
Teacher gives many kinds of task in order the students become more creative in using English in real life. Besides, students should correct the errors in their work and make revision of the work.
(2) Teacher needs more time in completing portfolio of the students;
In portfolio assessment process, students’ work should be given feedback as a motivation for the students. So, teacher needs more time to check over the students’ work and give feedback to each work. Teacher also should assess students’ attitude in class.
(3) School’ parties need more cost to give portfolio to each student.
To record the student’s work needs kind of folder for each student.
Portfolios can fail if objectives are not clear, if guidelines are not given to students, or if systematic periodic review and feedback are not present.

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