In written language

the writer must have a good knowledge of writing with all of its aspects whereas the reader must have a good knowledge of understanding the reading As a matter of fact, in teaching a language, if they, the teachers, want their students have good mastery of a language, in spoken one, their ability to understand needs to be considerably more extensive than their ability to speak. It means that they, before drilling them self to speak, must drill them self to listen or to understand the dialogues. On the other wise, the learn¬ing models of dialogues( conversation ) which have been skillfully contrived to accelerate oral production, do not always contain a sufficiently a large number of those features of natural speech, that is the great deal of information which is redundant. In this case, for example, utterance to be more structured and complete, and the level of redundancy will be generally low.
In addition, in order to be able to cope with real life language situations, they need regular and frequent training through a programme of listening comprehension with suitable varied models of natural speech from the earliest stages, for instance, in a language course. Shortly, they have actually to learn to listen, just as they have to learn to speak. It just the same way if they want to learn e. language, in written one, they need to be able to read more easily than they can write.
Furthermore, there is an interdependence of oral skills in communication. For the oral communication is a two-way process between the listener and speaker Thus, between the speaker and listener cannot be separated each other. In this case the speaker does not always ini¬tiate : he also responds to what ho has heard ( as for example when he answers questions or makes a comment ), while the listener does not always remain silent : he is normally expected to make some sort of responses ( which may not always be verbal, as for example, when he carries out an instruction ).
Talking about the goal of teaching oral production, ( speaking in conversation or dialogue ) Donn Byrne says that the main goal in teaching the productive skill of speaking will be oral fluency : the ability to express oneself intelligibly, reasonably, accurately, and with¬out undue hesitation ( otherwise, communication may break down because the listener loses interest or gets impatients ). By the explanation above, means that in learning dialogue the students must be drilled to express their own ideas freely and precisely. The role of the teachers are as the conductor. They must make stimuli for the students to express their own ideas about the topics they have been being discussed. And when the students get difficulties they must guide them, as well make correction when students do mistakes. To attain a good result of teaching-learning dialogue process the teacher have to make corrections immediately when the students do mistakes.
The other factor that can influence the students in learning a foreign language is motivation. As teacher, we, sometime find students who do not pay attention to the lessons beeing tought them, they get tired of learning the language ( foreign language ) because they fell that they get nothing of learning the language, they can not speak in the language they have been learn. According to Donn Byrne, the ability to speak ( oral production ) is a good motivation for the students. In this case he, further more, says that the development of oral production is a good source of motivation for most learners, who are normally much concerned to be able to speak and to understand a foreign language. To point how the importance of motivation in learning a foreign language, he give us more explanation : satisfaction at being able to say a small number of sentences after a few lessons must be sustained by demonstrating to the students that they can say progressively more and more through the language as the course continues. To support the good achievement in learning a foreign language, especially conversation, the teachers have also to think about the students' intelligibility of the language that they have been being learnt. Intelligibility is usually defined in phonological terms ( e.g. being able to make the difference between essentials sounds such as /i/ and /i/ as they occur in the two words leave and live ). It is not only importance for the level of basic understanding or elementary but also for the purpose of oral fluency. Clearly, in order to make the students to be able to speak or communicate effectively, the teachers must teach the students an adequate mastery of grammar and vocabulary as well as phonology. It is better to remember that over-learning in any of these areas will serve no purpose if it exces¬sively slows down progress in the others. It demands the teachers to be able to devide the available time in teaching them to the students, which one is must presented first, etc. It will be necessary to concentrate on the essential features such as the differences between key sounds, weak forms, basic stress and intonation patterns, and more importance will need to be attached to receiption of these features than production, as the consequence the amount of the time available for system¬atic speech training is bound to be limited.

After seeing the existence of the dialogue and all of its aspects in learning the dialogue, the main duty of the teachers is to choose the best method that mist be done to get the effective teaching-learning process Talking about methods, in teaching dialogues or conversation, they had been discussed for along time. There are many methods, namely :
1) Direct method
2) Audio lingual method
3) Silent Way method
4) Community Language Learning ( CLL ) method
5) Total Physical Respond ( TPR ) method.
In the direct method, the material is presented in the foreign language ( bahasa tujuan ) The students are forced to speak and think in the foreign language. The experts of this method had assumption that learning a foreign langu¬age just the same as learning the native language. The Audio lingual method teaches students to speak using the drill technique ( with all of its varities ) and mim-mem. In this method the mistaken of speaking is avoided because it does not support the development of speaking. In the Silent Way method the students are forced to keep silent and to listen carefully because they must re¬peat the teacher's samples after being given once though. Teaching conversation using Community Language Learning method means the students are given the time to express their own ideas to the teacher. The function of the teach¬ers are as the facilitator, the counselor, the Bain source, and also as the translator. In this method the mistakes are regarded as the development of the students' langu¬age. The newest method in teaching conversation or teaching a foreign language is the Total Physical Respond ( TPR ) method. In this method, the students must postpone their ability to speak, they must develop their ability to listen first. This method, in Indonesian schools, is used for teaching the students of the Junior High school level.
As we have already known, some methods in teaching dialogue to the students, there have not been a methods which most effective to teach students conversation. Dr. Sri Utari Subyakto N. said that :
Jadi, hingga saat inikita belum pasti mengenai metode mana yang paling efektif dalam mengajar berbicara BT ( bahasa tujuan ) kepada pelajar. Kita semua mengenal gejala "pelajar yang mengetahui dan hafal pola-pola kalimat bahasa tujuan, tetapi yang belum mampu berkomunikasi secara wajar". Gejala ini disinyalir oleh para guru bahasa sebagai gejala yang kurang memuaskan dan yang menyebabkan perkembangan-perkembangan yang mutakhir dalam pengajaran bahasa. Ada dua hal lagi atau kekurangan yang belum terpenuhi, yakni (a) makna dari bentuk / struktur bahasa yang dipakai, dan (b) kemampuan untuk mengetahui apa yang harus dikatakan pada waktu atau saat yang tepat.

From the statement above it is clear that the condition of teaching foreign language in Indonesian schools have not been on the target of teaching.
Now, the writer wants to present two kinds of ties in teaching conversation using Communicative approach. Two communicative activities are :
(1) Pra-communicative activities, and
(2) Communicative activities.
(1) Pra-communicative Activities.
Pra-communicative is the communication which hasn't been able to be called true communicative communication, because there hasn't an element that is needed in order that the communication is able to be called an appropri¬ate and natural communication, that is there is not an information gap.
The activities are the presentations in :
(a) Technique of Dialogue.
That is to memorize sentences in the dialogue form, and to dramatize sentences fluently before drilling with structural-drill and vocabulary. The use of this method is to improve the fluency of pronouncing words or sentences, and to avoid the afraidness in pronouncing.
(b) Dialogue with picture ( for the SLTP levels ).
The teacher brings pictures shown to the students by asking the name of the pictures one by one.
e.g. : Teacher : “ What is this ? “
Students : “That's a book “. Etc
(c) Guided dialogue.
The teacher drills students in the question and an¬swer forms in the purpose language ( FL ).
e.g. : Teacher : "Are you going to………this morning?"
Ss : " Yes, I am ". or " No, I am not "
(d) Dramatitation of an activity.
For example the teacher is running, smilling, etc., then asks the students : “What am I doing ?” students answer : " You're running " etc.
(e) Picture in profession.
For example : A doctor in his uniform ( white etc )
A teacher in front of black board, etc.
Then the teacher asks : “What is he / she ?”
Students answer : " He / she is a doctor " etc.
(f) Dialogue with picture.
For example, the picture in point (e). The teacher shows the picture detailly, then asks the students.
e.g. : Teacher : " What is the doctor wearing ? ".
Ss. : " A white coat "," A pair of glasses".
(g) Question-answer technique.
The teacher chooses the basic material of the lessons includes structure and vocabulary. For example the teacher has taught the ‘Past tense’ form of English and vocabulary, the make a dialogue :
Teacher : " What did you do this morning at 07.00 ? "
Students : " I went by bus to school "
(h) Completing sentences, paragraph or short story. The teacher presents uncomplete sentences, then the students are asked to complete them.
e.g. : My sister likes going to the movies, but my brother…………………….. ( does not like it, or likes playing soccer )
During this activities is done, the teacher has to master the condition in conducting it.
The main goals which will be gainned of this stage are :
(a) Students are involved in every drill orally, and
(b) Students begin to have braveness to open their mouth to speak though they haven't express their own ideas,
(2) Communicative Activities. On this stage, the teacher begins to enless his role in speaking in front of the class, while students begin to play role in class to speak. The activities of this stage are : (a) Community Language Learning ( CLL ) method.
The teacher divides the students into groups, each , group has a leader. Students exchange to speak something and then continue in the group, so that the communication will become a complete story. The conversation is recorded on a tape recorder, and replays then. After all, the teacher discusse about the conversation with the students. In this case the teacher's role is to controle the activities :
giving answers, suggestions, or even translations when the students get difficulties.
(b) Giving assignment to the students.
The teacher can give students a role to be played. For example; If the student becomes a teacher, and the other student as his student. Then, they are asked to play those roles, teacher and student.
This role play can be varied fit to the level of the students.
(c) Social formulas and dialogues.
What is meant by the Social formulas is the presentation of social formulas which are needed in communi¬cation ( social communication ), for example ; greet¬ing, leaving, introducing someone, Excusing, expressing emotion of angrying, sad, disappointed, happy, satisfy, and so on.
(d) Community-oriented assignment.
The students are asked to make communication with the native speakers. This activity is could be conducted in places where many native speakers stay in. For example: in a state embassy ( foreign embassy ), state
offices, and so on. If those places are impossible to
get, the teacher can ask students to become tourist
guide, translators, etc.
(e) Problem solving activities.
The students are asked to solve problems that are made by the teacher. To support this activities, the teacher can play a role in it. For instance, the teacher make a topics of "Climbing a mountain". The teacher divides the students into groups, each group should discusses about the mountain climbing, what are needed to overcome this problem, what should be prepared to climb a mount. The teacher can also give suggestion, answer, and so on, when they need.

To complete the explanation above, it is better for the writer to makes conclusions related to the activities in teaching students conversation ( speaking ). Accord¬ing to Finacchiaro and Brumfit says that the activities that can be conducted in teaching students speaking, as follows :
(1) Making question-answer or dialogue in classroom.
(2) Giving guides are used in classroom.
(3) Using "Gouin series". Asking students to play role in complete sentences of the realistics context.
(4) Asking students to prepare the original sentences based on communicative terms, structures, or notions which have been discussed.
(5) Answering questions based on the experiences in class room or in the community.
(6) Composing appropriate questions to the teacher or the other students based on a reading text they have read together.
(7) Identifying names of objects on the flanegraph
(8) Retelling a story they have read, their experiences in their own sentences. In addition, the teacher can give some key words ( essential words ).
(9) Composing a report of a topic that has been prepared and answer the questions of the topic.
(10) Setting conversation. For instance, talking about a bank, a library, etc.
(11) Playing language games.
(12) Making conversation of discussion, panel forms, etc. In this case the students are demanded to be able to express their own ideas, for instance, agreement, disagreement, doubt, and so on, being relevant to the topic is being discussed.
(13) Making phone communication.
(14) Playing role in a modern drama.

By the explanation above, it is clear that the ability in mastering the dialogue has a great role in learn¬ing the language. It shows also how the importance of the ability in mastering dialogue of a language, if they want to make use a language they have learnt for their life.
For there are many methods in teaching dialogues of a language, while the experts haven't found yet the best method in teaching productive skill of speaking or conversation. So that the teachers must be able to choose , the best, method ( one of them ) fit to the condition of the students, classes, and levels.
It is undoubtedly, that by mastering productive skill the students will of course get advantages to develop their ability to use English as a means of communication When students learning English only memorize vocabularies and the structural rules without practising to use English, they will never master English as a means of communication. In this case, the teacher should allow the stu¬dents to do what they want to learn. And also the choice of methods and techniques will determine the achievement of learning of English as a means of communication.

Postingan terkait: